Effect of tooth preparation and coolants on temperature within the pulp chamber
The pulpal tissue has a relatively low compliance, as it is enclosed in dentin, and has a relatively high blood flow and blood volume. The resting pulpal blood flow is relatively high, averaging 0.15-0.17ml/min/gram of tissue. This is four times higher than in resting skeletal muscle.The normal pulpal temperature ranges between 34 and 35°C.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of coolants and the depth of preparation on temperature in the pulp chamber.
Methodology: Six extracted human molar teeth were used for the study. The teeth were prepared through the furcation area to receive the thermocouple probe. A mounting assembly was designed to hold a thermocouple probe as well as a tooth. The thermocouple terminal was positioned in the pulp chamber of the tooth. The thermocouple used for the study could measure temperature variation from - 50°C to +200°C. The tooth was prepared till different depths subsequently on each a xial wall with/ without coolant and temperature changes within the pulp chamber were recorded.
Results: There was a concomitant increase in temperature noted in the pulp chamber as the depth of preparation increased. While preparing without coolant there was an increase in temperature in relation to all tooth surfaces. The temperature change ranged from an increase of 2.60ºC to no variation in temperature. A drop in temperature in the pulp chamber was noted on preparation with coolant. The temperature variation ranged from a fall of 6.7ºC to 0.9ºC fall in temperature with use of coolants for tooth preparation.
Conclusion: The temperature variation was within 5.6ºC, which is supposed to produce 15 % loss of vitality of pulp. A conventional air rotor when used never causes trauma to the pulp during tooth preparation because of increase in temperature in the pulp chamber.
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